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East Asian Studies

This guide provides a general introduction to library and information resources for all those studying, teaching and researching on topics relating to China, Japan, Korea and other East Asian regions.

Citing and avoiding plagiarism

Citing and referencing demonstrates breadth of research and helps avoid plagiarism. To understand more about plagiarism and how and why to avoid it, see the University of Edinburgh's Institute for Academic Development's guide:

Types of referencing styles

There are many kinds of referencing styles such as Harvard, APA, Chicago, Vancouver, MLA, and MHRA systems. All styles consist of two parts: the in-text citation and the list of references at the end of the document containing all the sources referred to.

Depending on the way in which they record sources, referencing styles fall into three categories:

1. Author-date

  • In-text citations consist of the author name and date of publication.
  • In-text citations are given within parentheses before the full stop of the sentence containing the reference.
  • References are listed in alphabetical order of authors' surnames in the reference list.

Harvard and MLA are parenthetical reference styles. For Harvard style conventions and examples, click here.

2. Consecutive numbering

  • In-text citations consist of a number which is placed after the full stop of the sentence containing the reference.
  • The numbers recur with the full reference at the bottom of the page (footnote) or after the entire document (endnote).
  • A new number is used each time a reference is cited.
  • References are listed in the numerical order in the reference list.

MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association) style is a documentary note style. For MHRA style conventions and examples, click here.

3. Recurrent numbering

  • In-text citations consist of a number which is placed within brackets (sometimes in superscript).
  • The same number is used whenever the same source is cited in your text.
  • References are listed in the numerical order in the reference list.

Vancouver style uses the recurrent numbering system. For Vancouver style conventions and examples, click here.

Popular referencing styles used in LLC

Check with your academic department or tutor on which referencing style should be used for your subject area. Whatever system you use, it is important to be consistent, i.e. to ensure you are using the same style and format for your references throughout your work.

The most likely styles used in the School of Literatures, Languages and Cultures are:


Available from:


Available from:

Chicago referencing system

Available from:

How to reference Chinese, Japanese and Korean sources

Referencing tool

Cite Them Right Online explains and demonstrates how to cite, both in-text and in a reference list or bibliography, a wide range of material types: books, journal articles, lecture notes, law reports, web pages, computer games, live performances...

Harvard (author-date) is shown throughout but many material types are demonstrated in other citation styles too: APA, Chicago, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA, Vancouver.

General information on referencing and plagiarism is also presented.

Referencing tutorials

1. Referencing tutorial from Cite Them Right Online

NB: University login required

An interactive resource to help you learn how to reference correctly and avoid plagiarism.

Find out about the principles behind referencing and how to acknowledge the information sources that you use.

This tutorial is made-up of 11 short, self-contained topics, which you can explore and revisit at any time.

Content includes:

  • What is referencing and why it matters
  • What sources are appropriate to reference
  • How to avoid plagiarism
  • How to insert citations into your text
  • Incorporating the work of others into your writing
  • Documenting the full reference details

Launch Referencing Tutorial

2. Referencing tutorials from Sage Research Methods

NB: University login required

Importing references from DiscoverEd

When you get the search results in DiscoverEd, you can import references from DiscoverEd into virtually any reference manager.  DiscoverEd offers dedicated export options for EndNote Web Œ(1) ŒŒ(i.e. EndNote Online) and Mendeley Web (2), but can now also export an RIS (3) formatted text file which is compatible with EndNote desktop software and many different reference managers.


To use the RIS, EndNote Web or Mendeley Web export options -

1. Locate the full record in DiscoverEd for the item you wish to export.

2. Under 'Export options' select the export option you wish to use (EndNote Web, Mendeley Web or RIS for EndNote desktop).

You can also copy the citation (5) and paste it into your document directly, or import the reference into your course Resource Lists (4).

What is reference management software?

Reference management software allows you to:

  • collect bibliographic data from DiscoverEd, databases or even web pages
  • add references manually
  • store references on your desktop computer or in a cloud provided by the software
  • sort your references by author, title, year of publication, resource type, and so on
  • add research notes to your references
  • link to full text, web pages, PDF or Word documents, and image files
  • organise your references into groups
  • format and cite your references in your chosen referencing style
  • export your references to your research paper as bibliographies
  • sharing your references for collaboration with other people (usually the web version)

Therefore, it is a good idea to use such a tool early on in your studies (even at your undergraduate level) for the sake of efficiency, accuracy and giving yourself more time for academic thinking.

Choosing your reference management software

There are several reference management software tools available. Unless specified by your School or academic department, you have a choice when selecting a tool. Things you will want to consider when choosing your reference manager are:

  1. Accessibility - desktop, web-based or web browser extension
  2. Is the citation/reference style you need to use available?
  3. Is the software compatible with the word processor you use?
  4. If you want to share your references with colleagues, what do they use?

For example, if you just want to create formatted references and don't need to save them, ZoteroBib ( is a free service that helps you build a bibliography instantly from any computer or device, without creating an account or installing any software; If you want to do more, a proper reference management software tool lets you store, annotate and group references and also automatically creates citations and reference lists in your documents.

For help in deciding which is right for you, please see our software comparison table from the links below:

For more information there is a self-enrol Learn course where you can learn about four of the most popular options : Endnote,  Mendeley, Zotero and Citavi.


EndNote is supported by the University and available as desktop run software and as a web application. The desktop version has the full range of features and functions. EndNote online works from a web browser. Both versions provide automatic citing in Microsoft Word.

The desktop version is installed on the open access lab computers where the "Cite While You Write" plug-in, for use with a desktop library or an online group, is already available on Microsoft Word.

  • EndNote (Online)

Register via & use VPN if off-campus.

  • EndNote (Desktop)

EndNote  can be downloaded onto most University machines for free. See Software Services' EndNote for Schools for full information.

  • EndNote for personal/home devices

Staff and students can request an Endnote download to install the software on personal/home devices via Software Services

Learn to use EndNote in 6 minutes

More information provided by Clarivate Analytics -  EndNote Guide

How to capture webpage metadata for referencing?

Capture Reference is a browser bookmarklet that can be used to easily extract reference information from webpages into EndNote online or EndNote Desktop. Follow the instructions provided by Clarivate Analytics on how to install this tool on your internet browser and how to use it:

EndNote training

There is support and help available from staff on using EndNote, desktop and online.

The Digital Skills and Training programme includes workshops and webinars on EndNote for which anyone can sign up and for which the workbooks are available for people to go through themselves in their own time.

Links to IS Digital Skills' workbooks:

Thinking of using other reference management tools?

Although EndNote is fully supported by the University, training and workshops are also offered for Zotero and Mendeley.


Digital Skills: Choosing a Reference Manager - Learn course

Endnote, Mendeley, Zotero workshops are delivered online via the Institute of Academic Development